Electricity is in fact very hard to store and must therefore be consumed as it is produced, ensuring that consumption and production are instantaneously balanced to avoid issues in service continuity.
For example, in the evenings, the energy produced from solar panels decreases rapidly, yet it is specifically during the afternoon that the peak consumption for the entire day is concentrated. On the contrary, peak production of photovoltaic energy is concentrated during the central daytime hours and, in future energy scenarios, the need to accumulate this energy in excess of consumption will increase progressively. Moreover, the northern Italian regions require a greater amount of energy, while the majority of renewable energy plants are concentrated in the south due to the natural availability of sun and wind.
To lead Italy through the energy transition, while continuing to guarantee the quality and safety of the electricity supply, the following five factors must be considered at all times.